The current voting system
The voting system presently in use in Québec and Canada is called first-past-the-post, or the British voting system. This voting system ensures that each voter may vote only once, in their riding, and only for one person. The person elected is the one who received the most votes, but not necessarily a majority of all the votes cast (in other words, receiving 50% +1 vote). Even if the winner leads by only one vote, this is the person who will represent their riding at the National Assembly.
The weight of an individual’s vote can vary according to the party one supports, as well as where one lives. The reason for this inequality is that, during a general election, there are in effect 125 elections taking place in as many ridings. Within each riding, all that is needed is to receive one vote more than one’s opponent, in order to win the seat and represent the riding. The political party that wins the greatest number of ridings forms the government, irrespective of how many individual votes they won province-wide.
The characteristics and effects of this type of voting system have been observed all over the world.